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ID 1023

Pathways, Making the protein

Description:
In this section learn that in the cytoplasm, the messenger RNA is released from its carrier proteins and binds to a protein assembly complex called a ribosome.
Transcript:
In the cytoplasm, the messenger RNA is released from its carrier proteins and binds to a protein assembly complex called a ribosome (the multicolored structure). This begins a process called translation, where the ribosome reads the information encoded in the RNA and assembles a protein from amino acids found in the cell. Many ribosomes can operate at the same time to make multiple copies of the protein. The ribosomes are anchored on the outer membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. If you look carefully, you can see the ghostly shapes of the newly made proteins accumulating on the inner side of the membrane. Once the job is done, the ribosomes and RNA part company. Molecules identified: Ribonucleic acid (RNA): A molecule similar to DNA. RNA is usually single-stranded and instead of thymine has uracil as one of its four nitrogenous bases. Different types of RNA molecules are used for different purposes. For example, messenger RNA carries the information to make a protein from the nucleus to a ribosome, while transfer RNA delivers amino acids to a ribosome during protein production. Ribosome: A structure made up of proteins and RNA that is the site of protein production in the cell. Ribosomes decode messenger RNA (mRNA) and assemble amino acids into proteins based on the mRNA script. Growth factor: Proteins that stimulate cell division, proliferation or differentiation. See EGF and PDGF.
Keywords:
rna molecules, messenger rna, carrier proteins, transfer rna, protein assembly, protein production, cell ribosomes, amino acids, types of rna, ribosome, outer membrane, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, mrna, differentiation, nucleus, molecule, pathways, proliferation
Creative Commons License This work by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License.

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