Interviewee: Frederick Sanger.
Frederick Sanger describes the use of computers in sequencing.
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Computers and sequencing)
We were doing it all by hand and working it out. We had just started using a computer, just to store the data, but now of course a lot of the work is done with the computers and the reactions are done automatically with robotics, and the results go straight into the computer and then analyzed. One of the troubles when we were working initially was that, you know, we had a few mistakes and usually those mistakes turned out to be just copying mistakes. When you got a sequence and then you have to write out two sequences together and the, you know, when you're doing it by hand there were many more mistakes just due to the copying then.
Two sequencing techniques were developed independently in the 1970s. The method developed by Fred Sanger used chemically altered "dideoxy" bases to terminate newly synthesized DNA fragments at specific bases (either A, C, T, or G). These fragments are th
The sequencing method developed by Fred Sanger forms the basis of automated "cycle" sequencing reactions today. Fluorescent dyes are added to the reactions, and a laser within an automated DNA sequencing machine is used to analyze the DNA fragments produc