Interviewee: Douglas Wallace.
Mitochondrial DNA pioneer Douglas Wallace explains the movement of different lineages of humans from Africa into Europe and Asia.
(DNAi Location: Applications > Human origins > Migrations > Videos > From Africa to Europe and Asia)
In Africa, from this original population, there were many different kinds of female lineages. And they gave different haplogroups [types of mitochondrial DNA sequence]. And we call these, all those that are distinctive for Africa L, so there's L1, L2, L3, etc. From L3, then, two new haplogroups arose, which we call M and N. These again were specific lineages. They arose here, and then they moved outward, probably across this region out into this part of Eurasia. Then the N radiated to give all the different lineages of Europe, including haplogroup H, which Dr. Watson belongs to, and M and N colonized Asia, to give a large number of different haplogroups. Some of those, such as A, B, C, D, E, F, are distributed non-randomly in Asia. For instance F is very common in Southeast Asia. Whereas A and C and D are very rare in the south, but they become increasingly enriched as you go up into the Chukotka Peninsula, up in the extreme northeast of Siberia.