Sanger method of DNA sequencing, 3D animation with narration
The DNA sequencing method developed by Fred Sanger forms the basis of automated "cycle" sequencing reactions today.
Scaling up to sequence. In the 1980s, two key developments allowed researchers to believe that sequencing the entire genome could be possible. The first was a technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that enabled many copies of DNA sequence to be quickly and accurately produced. The second, an automated method of DNA sequencing, built upon the chemistry of PCR and the sequencing process developed by Frederick Sanger in 1977.
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The first method of sequencing the genetic code was devised by Fred Sanger. To sequence the DNA, it must first be separated into two strands. The strand to be sequenced is copied using chemically altered bases. These altered bases cause the copying process to stop each time one particular letter is incorporated into the growing DNA chain. This process is carried out for all four bases, and then the fragments are put together like a jigsaw to reveal the sequence of the original piece of DNA.
The sequencing method developed by Fred Sanger forms the basis of automated "cycle" sequencing reactions today. Fluorescent dyes are added to the reactions, and a laser within an automated DNA sequencing machine is used to analyze the DNA fragments produc
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enables researchers to produce millions of copies of a specific DNA sequence in approximately two hours. This automated process bypasses the need to use bacteria for amplifying DNA.
Two sequencing techniques were developed independently in the 1970s. The method developed by Fred Sanger used chemically altered "dideoxy" bases to terminate newly synthesized DNA fragments at specific bases (either A, C, T, or G). These fragments are th