A technician prepares to load a filter mask into the photolithography camera. These filters allow the technician to build customized chains of DNA. The blue boxes on the right store 50-100 filters needed to produce a single type of GeneChip™.
A technician uses a computer guiding system to align the filter mask in perfect register with the quartz wafer. The filter mask will block light to selected regions of the wafer. More nucleotides can be added to the exposed regions.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enables researchers to produce millions of copies of a specific DNA sequence in approximately two hours. This automated process bypasses the need to use bacteria for amplifying DNA.
The first educational product released by iPlant, DNA Subway (www.dnasubway.org) presents complex scientific tools and data in an intuitive and appealing interface, and makes high-level genome analysis broadly available to students and educators. "Riding"
Image of Kary Mullis. In 1985, Kary Mullis invented the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a method of amplifying or producing many copies of a specific piece of DNA. The revelation came to this eccentric character on a drive in northern California.
Marshall Nirenberg and Heinrich Matthaei used poly-U mRNA in a cell-free system to make a polyphenylalanine protein chain. This showed that UUU must be the code that specifies the amino acid phenylalanine.