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ID 15882

Breaking the code

Description:
Marshall Nirenberg and Heinrich Matthaei used poly-U mRNA in a cell-free system to make a polyphenylalanine protein chain. This showed that UUU must be the code that specifies the amino acid phenylalanine.
Keywords:
marshall nirenberg,dna rna,protein chain,matthaei,breaking the code,mrna,amino acid,e coli,heinrich
Creative Commons License This work by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License.

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16494. Animation 22: DNA words are three letters long.
Several researchers crack the genetic code.
15350. The RNA code for phenylalanine, Marshall Nirenberg
Marshall Nirenberg talks about the RNA code for phenylalanine.
15885. Cell-free extracts
Paul Zamecnik first developed the cell-free extract system, which Marshall Nirenberg adapted to decipher the genetic code. Paul Zamecnik and Mahlon Hoagland also isolated activated tRNA, the "adaptor" that shuttled amino acids to ribsomes for incorporati
15353. Figuring out the other codons, Marshall Nirenberg
After decoding the "easy" codons, Marshall Nirenberg talks about his strategy for decoding the rest.
15349. RNA can stimulate protein synthesis, Marshall Nirenberg
Marshall Nirenberg talks about RNA can stimulate protein synthesis.
15347. Cell-free protein synthesis, Marshall Nirenberg
Marshall Nirenberg talks about cell-free protein synthesis.
16511. Biography 22: Marshall Warren Nirenberg (1927- )
Marshall Nirenberg, Har Gobind Khorana, and Robert Holley shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine. Nirenberg and Khorana cracked the genetic code. Holley sequenced and deduced the structure of the first tRNA molecule.
16470. Concept 21: RNA is an intermediary between DNA and protein.
The Central Dogma is the flow of genetic information from DNA, to RNA, to protein.
15348. Gamov's conclusion that three DNA bases link to one amino acid, Marshall Nirenberg
George Gamow was a physicist who became interested in biology after reading Watson and Crick's 1953 paper on DNA structure. Marshall Nirenberg talks about Gamow's theories on the code.
16489. Biography 21: Paul Charles Zamecnik (1913-)
Paul Zamecnik developed a cell-free extract that he and Mahlon Hoagland used to study protein synthesis. They identified tRNA as the adaptor predicted by Francis Crick in his Central Dogma
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