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ID 16940

Alternative RNA Splicing

Researchers Dr. Phil Sharp and Dr. Adrian Krainer describe alternative splicing of genes.
Phil Sharp: Many genes in our body are expressed as RNA in different cell types, a skin cell, a bone cell, a brain cell. But in one cell type, the pattern of splicing of the sense pieces together is different than the pattern in another cell type and that's called alternative splicing. So it's alternative splicing because the splicing pattern in one cell is different than the splicing pattern in another cell and therefore the proteins in those two cells are different. And that can make a great deal of difference because one protein can function, splice in one pattern in one cell one way and then another spliced differently in another way. So, you know, if you're designing drugs or you're looking at functionality of mutations they can differ due to this alternative splicing between different cells. Adrian Krainer: Alternative splicing means that the splicing machinery selects certain exons or parts of certain exons differently in a proportion of the molecules that it splices. So it's a way to take a gene and from its primary transcript, generate two or more mRNAs that can encode two or more proteins. The splicing machinery has a choice. It sees this string of exons and it chooses what to join to what. It isn't always product A or product B, you could have some proportion of the molecules choose pathway A and the rest choose pathway B and that is the case with SMN2. If it were to completely skip exon 7, that maybe a lethal change in the absences of SMN1. In reality, it makes some full length protein.
Spinal muscular atrophy, SMA, RNA, mRNA, splicing, gene, genetic, DNA, antisense, motor neuron, splice, Transcription, intron, exon, pre mRNA, splicing, spliceosome, function, alternative splicing, binding site, exon 7
Creative Commons License This work by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License.

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16941. 2D Animation of Alternative RNA Splicing
An animation shows alternate splicing of the SMN2 gene.
16939. RNA Splicing
A step-by-step 2D animation shows the details of RNA splicing.
16935. The Connection Between SMA and RNA Splicing
Dr. Krainer explains the connection between SMA and RNA splicing.
16937. An Explanation of RNA Splicing
Dr. Sharp explains the process of RNA splicing.
16938. 3D Animation of RNA Splicing
An animation of the crucial RNA editing step called splicing.
16950. 2D Animation of Antisense Oligonucleotide Therapy for SMA
An animation shows how antisense oligonucleotide therapy for SMA utilizes RNA splicing.
16949. Antisense Oligonucletotide Therapy for SMA
Dr. Krainer explains the science behind antisense therapy for SMA.
16936. An Introduction to RNA Splicing
Dr. Roberts describes RNA splicing.
16948. Alternative RNA Splicing Therapy for Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Drs. Sharp and Sumner describe how RNA splicing can be used as a therapy for SMA.
16929. Genes Involved with SMA
Dr. Sumner explains how SMA is related to changes in the SMN1 and SMN2 genes.
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